For the Students of Hindu Vedic Astrology by Dr. A. Shanker

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Sun and Moon - Consideration of Time Difference!

As discussed earlier the 27th part of the cosmos is called Nakshatra. The Moon covers the distance of one Nakshatra in one day and night in the cosmos. It clearly shows that the Moon moves away up to one Nakshatra from the Sun per 24 hours. The greater the distance between the Sun and the Moon brighter becomes the light of the Moon. Since the Sun takes a round of the world in 24 hours along with its movement from east to west, passing through the cities in the east direction the Moon through its monthly revolution keeps drifting from the west to the east. Consequently, the difference that scours between the Sun and the Moon due to the 16th day of the month (Parwa) develops from time to time.

This discussion is aimed at explaining that if a very short period of dvij is recorded in one city and due to this the Moon is not sighted there, then in another city situated westward at such a distance than it has Sunset a few hours later than the first one, sighting of Moon, there will be deemed to be reliable. The reason is that the Moon will be at a greater distance eastward while the Sun is moving westward. On the eastern fringe of India there is a city named Chatgaon or Chittagong. The sunrise and sunset timings there and in Makkah Muazzamah have a difference of 3.25 hours. Sunset in Chithagang is 3.25 earlier than in Makkah Muazzamah. From this angle, we can say that if Chittagang has a shorter dvij per its calendar Moon will not be sighted there. But by the time the Moon reaches Makkah Muazzamah the portion of dvij would have been increased and thus the Moon will certainly be sighted there.

If the earth is supposed to be revolving around the Sun or contrary, it may be the case even then there will be differences in timings of sighting the Moon in various cities of the world. The earth is described as circular and elliptical surrounded by human population from all sides. Therefore, the Sun cannot keep all the cities illuminated at the same time. In countries situated in the North and South of the equator or the straight line drawn east to west Sun rays fall into a crooked order because the zodiac circle passes through the equator diagonally and so does the Sun. Had Zodiac’s divergence not been on the equator there would not have been Sunrise and Sunset in the east and the west. There would have been no rotation of crops, no difference in the duration of the day and night, and no change of seasons.

The world is full of big cities situated at enormous distances from each other. The Sun may take 12 hours to reach from one city to another. There is as much time difference between the Indian cities as it is among the foreign and Indian cities. If there is a day in one, there is a night in the other. The time difference between London and India is of approximately six hours. When it is noon in India, in London there will be 6 O’clock in the morning. The opportune movement or Lagan or ascendant in India at noon will be the same in London in the morning. If one has to generate a horoscope for a person born in London will have to determine the opportune moment that has lapsed six hours earlier, and that will be determined as his Lagan. When it is dusk in Calcutta there still remains one hour of night in Lahore and one and half an hour in Karachi. Since the basis for reducing the controlling star or opportune moment is a calculation of Sunrise and Sunset and for taking up any activity in accordance with astrology one has necessarily to determine the controlling star (Lagan) it is impossible for the world to have a uniform timing of Sunrise and Sunset due to revolution of the Sun and time difference thus caused. It is more necessary to take into consideration the timings at important places outside India because in foreign countries one may not find almanacs published in India from time to time and so their timings are not brought to the record. Therefore, in order to generate a Horoscope of a person living anywhere one should determine the time of Sunset of a particular place by adjusting the time difference between two places. Places situated east or South Lahore has Sunset earlier than Lahore. Contrarily, the places situated west or North of Lahore have Sunset later than Lahore. By including the difference of such places in the Sunrise time in Lahore we may get its actual Sunrise time. This variation of Sunrise and Sunset timings certainly has some divine exigency.

Two persons living in different far-off places at the same time can never be in complete agreement because the difference in controlling stars at every degree becomes a binding factor. The Sunrise time fixed in India is Sunset time in some European countries. The same is true about solar and lunar eclipses. If it will start in Landon at 9 O’clock in the morning. In Lahore, it will start at nearly 3 O’clock in the afternoon, in Delhi at 1:30 pm and in Rangoon (Myanmar) at 5 pm, and in Calcutta at 3 pm. This difference is due to the movement of the earth. That is why all whose date and time of birth coincide with that of an emperor or ruler do not become elevated to similar positions.

Dr. A. Shanker

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